Recording and presentations: Designing Bifacial PV project in Brazil

24 June 2020

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Automated transcription (it may contain errors)

Unknown Speaker 0:15
Hello, if you are here to see the webinar, the signing of the facial vivid projects in Brazil, you are at the right place. So we won’t start quite yet. We’ll wait for our friends who might want to see the webinar. We’re running a little bit late. But in the meantime, I just like to remind you of a couple of things. So if you’ve been to one of our webinars before, you know that we will send you a recording of this webinar. So you’ll get the both the presentation slides and the video recording in an email that will be in probably like two or three days or so. also like to remind you, you can ask questions. So there is a questions and answers box at the bottom of your screen at the toolbar. And, and well, and there is also a friend box a chat function and we normally ask people to say where they’re joining from in the chat function, but well, we Let’s wait for a few more seconds and then we’ll actually start and I’ll get we’ll get started with Alan’s presentations. Just a few more seconds.

Unknown Speaker 2:08
Right, well, those of you who have just joined welcome to the webinar designing by facial beauty projects in Brazil. So today, we’ll have our expert Alan Akamatsu technical manager of Latham from long D. You know, Carlos, how one of the keys to the signing by facial TV projects. So as I told you a few minutes ago, so we will send you the recording and the presentations. And also, I encourage you to send your questions through the q&a box. We will actually, you know, these custom ones Adam has finished his presentation. So. Right Well, another thing we encourage people to say where they’re joining France I’m here with my colleague, Sally from Madrid, Spain. So well, without further delay, so over over to you, Alan.

Unknown Speaker 3:13
Thank you very much. Carlos, thank you very much for the invitation. And well, I guess, morning or good afternoon, depending on where you are. I am a technical manager for Latin America for long, g solid. So I’ll be talking a little bit about our company launching a little bit about going technology and then we’ll get right to or subject right designing by facial systems in Brazil.

Unknown Speaker 3:45
So you share my screen.

Unknown Speaker 3:53
So Carlos, could you tell me when you are able to see my presentation

Unknown Speaker 3:57
I can see right now and it’s perfect.

Unknown Speaker 4:00
All right. So he’ll start talking a little very briefly about longy. Right won’t take too much time.

Unknown Speaker 4:09
So basically launching is a Chinese company. We were founded 20 years ago now. Right? So we started as actually a wafer production company. And we had our IPO in the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 2012. By 2014, that’s when we actually bought a company called Mary solar. And that’s where we officially entered the solar panel market. We finished 2019 with the production capacity of 42 gigawatts in monocrystalline wafers and 14 gigawatts in panel production, right. And the singleton way for production is actually 40% of the total global Capacity production by 2020 right by December this year, we will aim to more than double our production capacity reaching 30 gigawatts of solar panels. So these are our production facilities, roughly each factories in China there’s two outside of China, one in Malaysia and one in Vietnam, though those are usually reserved for more of the North American market right for Brazil and Latin. We usually get all our production from the Chinese factories. So as mentioned before, this is the evolution of our production capacity in wafer and solar panels. So a luxury actually, early this year, she we’ve got from PV modules and bankability routines are the we were the first company to actually reach the triple A bankability ratings. So that means that financially speaking, laundry is a very solid, very robust company. And one of the pillars that enables this triple A rating is actually our r&d investment. Right. So every year, we spent from five to 7% on average, on r&d, which has awarded us over 700 patents and over 600 collaborators working specifically in research and development, and then through that, all the innovations, all the new product that we can actually introduce to the market or the new technology. This is how we maintain all that, you know, tier one status all our bankability rates Following robust financial results. So, okay, one concept One consequence of that. We are also one of the few companies who actually have the extended reliability reports from independence laboratories are etc in PBL. So, talking a little bit about our technology itself, right, or panels, we have a few characteristics first longy solar only works with mono crystalline silicon, right due to its higher degree of purity. Its higher degree of standardization. It actually absorbs irradiance better. Every, every lining longy also is a park cell, right which is a chemical treatment that else that actually passivate the backside To sell it basically increases the power been and the efficiency.

Unknown Speaker 8:11
The third characteristic is or half consoles which basically consists literally it’s literally cutting this hell in half right and assembling the panel with it. So, this actually diminishes the electrical resistance inside the panel, which in turns give us two very interesting things The first is we actually are able to break down or operating temperature right. So, this will actually have a better result and a very performance once we face a few, a few problems such as you know hotspots, this same have coat design also enables to have between 15 and 25 Celsius 15 or 20 five degrees less temperature when you’re facing hot ones. And the third characteristic is actually due to the design itself from the halfpipe itself. You can clearly see that it’s kind of mirror right on the bottom and the top if you look at the middle where the three bypass diodes are, so this type of electrical design actually can mitigate shading ones by up to 50%, partial shading loss. Right. So all of our panels they have all these three characteristics right once again monocrystalline cells for treatment and have good lover records right reaching 500 the famous five milestone now that will be greatly talked about from the second semester on the 500 watt panels and on 500 and over right and the efficiency that No, it’s reached over 20% A while ago, but still is still it’s a record. And finally talking about the final characteristics in our solar modules or power degradation rates, we go 12 year product warranty and a 30 year performance warranty for beneficial panels, in which this is actually the lowest power degradation warranty in the market. Right. We have 2% power degradation in the first year and then zero point 45% degradation from the second to the 30th year. So, in other terms, you know, once your PV power plant celebrates his 30th birthday, you will still have almost an 85% power output from each panel.

Unknown Speaker 11:04

Unknown Speaker 11:06
getting to your main point in this webinar, let’s talk a little bit about the beneficial technology a little bit about d i official systems. So basically when you get to a by official panel, we have another layer of silicon on the backside of the panel back sheets, no longer white back sheets and transparent some it’s a double glass solar panel and it actually is able to absorb the indirect irradiation or indirect light from the backside. Right. So talking a little bit about two concepts that we need to define when we talk about by facial technology, right. First is the by facial factor. And let’s say for just for for an example sake You have a 70% by facial factor in your solar panel, what does that mean? What is the concept? The concept is that the backside of the panel is able to generate 70% of the nominal power greeting up to right if you are exposed to the same scenario and irradiance conditions right. So, this is the first concept. The second concept is the by facial gain, and the by facial gain is simply the amount of extra energy generated in megawatt hour. Pretty simple.

Unknown Speaker 12:50
So, when we talk about irradiance

Unknown Speaker 12:55
by facial gains when we’re designing a PV system by Fishel system, we have to worry about five main parameters, right? So are listed here and we’ll talk in further details about all these five parameters right, versus the albedo, which is basically the reflective index from the ground material, right. So your your ground, it could be grass, it could be land, it could be sand, it could be snow, it could be concrete, and each material has a different reflective capability. So when the solar rays hit the ground, and they are reflected back to the panel, right to the backside of the panel, that, you know, that feeder we call albedo, and it’s a you know, it’s a value that ranges from zero to one. This is the first concept the height of your PVC, just how much what is the ideal height that you should install your PVC, just you’re racking, right? You’re racking This is, I guess, pretty clear, pretty obvious. If you were generating energy from the backside, all your structures being built a rack or a tracker, you cannot create shading on the backside when something new also you always have to install by the frames like ordering the friends right you cannot go through the panel. row spacing, which is basically the distance between different strings where you know, sorry, ground coverage ratio. On a by facial system, you have to have actually a higher sorry, a lower GCR and higher distance, a longer distance between panels, and I’ll explain that in a while and the fifth parameter terms just really important. It’s the DC AC ratio on the inverter. But we’ll talk a little bit further detail about these five parameters now. So story on the Alvin top right, so it’s the capability of your ground material to reflect the sunlight. We have here, different examples of what is the albedo value for different materials, but I just like to stress a few things, right. So the lighter the material lighter is lighter than color, right, the more it will reflect. However, once once you started studying and doing simulations when you’re opido, you always have to consider the range, right for instance, listed grass, it’s it actually ranges from line from zero point 15 to zero point 26. Because simply because the grass depending on the time of the year, it can be it is like green and fresh. And that’s when you have the highest obito. But during fall it becomes Brown. It has a lower albedo, right? And that happens to some extent with every material. Right? So you always have to consider a wrench or an interval. When you have you’re doing your simulations for Elpida. In so let’s talk in practical terms, right in Brazil, you will, the most common material you will see will be a mix of land and grass, right? It’s not necessarily dry sand, you will also have like the coastal line, but it’s like compressed land, right? It gathers less dust. So it’s compressed land and grass right. This will be the two most common materials in Brazil. And if you We’ll usually see a mix of those two in the same pod. Since plan three, it’s not 100% land and it’s not 100% grass or mix. But regardless of that, well, you will hardly see snow in Brazil. So you can basically roll that out right there to a point at lb de. And the obito is the parameter that it’s a very sensitive parameter, right when you’re dealing with the by facial system, it will directly affect the amount of reagents the radiance that the backside of the pendant will receive, and therefore, the amount of extra energy or the by facial gain that you will have as a result.

Unknown Speaker 17:51
So that was the first parameter. I’ll be the second parameter. It’s the system’s height right? What we have here is that if you look at the two bottom pictures, actually, that is the backside of the panel, right so it’s the backside of the panel at eight centimeters height and the backside of the panel at 1.08 meters to what does this illustrate? Right? If you if you install your system, regardless if it’s in a racking system or a tracking system, if you have your panel really really low, right the reflective irradiance the interactive ratings, you will not be able to reach the panel fully write will only reach the borders right. So you will have half or less than half of your panel actually absorbing the sunlight. So this will not be interesting to your, to your to your system. However, when you start to get that panel in solid hire at least one meter, you will see your you will gradually see a better performance in better light absorption when you reach one meter, that’s where it becomes two starts to become ideal, right because the backside of the panel will be wholly exposed to the sunlight. So this is why when you’re designing by facial systems, you have to try as much as you can to extend the height of your system, right and one meter that that is a good height to to install your system and when I say height, that is the lowest point of your panel. Right. So actually, when you’re using trackers when you have either the maximum positive or negative angle, ideally, you should have it at least one meter off the ground. In some cases, you will not be able to but once again Try to have the highest possible installation as you can.

Unknown Speaker 20:16
So third, right, the backside shooting, if you’re using a rack system, so just you have to install it by going around the frame and going across the panel. And when you’re using trackers via two vertical one p or the vertical two p, there are two things that will actually impact shading. One is the axis of the tracker, right? The axis diameter. So you know, the smaller the diameter, the less it will impact, but you don’t have too much control on that because the axis actually has to work with it. A safety coefficient, right so your dependence on force Awesome, your tracker doesn’t break or you know, your panel doesn’t drained and things like that. So you don’t have too much control over it, right. However, what you do have a relative higher degree of control is the distance between this axis, the tracker axis, and the backside of the panel, right? And what we, what we actually suggest is that you have at least 40 millimeters, which is four centimeters of space between the axis and the backside of your panel. Most tracker companies can do that comfortably. I did actually achieve much more than 40 millimeters. It’s usually between like 880 and 120, right, so eight centimeters and 12 centimeters. So you should not have any problems when designing your pvcs. Right, just make sure it’s it’s above four centimeters. But you know, most tier one charter companies can vary comfortably go overnight? Yes. So

Unknown Speaker 22:04
the longer that distance is the better.

Unknown Speaker 22:13
So for the fourth parameter, right row spacing, as we mentioned, when you when you were designing a bio Fisher system, you actually have to pay attention to a few things. One is you have to actually have a longer distance between your strings, right. So there are two reasons for that. The first reason is usually, depending on the project philosophy, when you’re doing a modern facial system, you actually accept that a very small percentage of power loss due to the Senate angle work. But what does anything is it’s actually the angle that the salary will It’s your panel and it will vary a little bit during the year, right? So here in Brazil, when you reach actually the wintertime, you will, your zenith angle will be a bit more pronounced a bit higher. And so you will create more shading in some projects and some designs, one official designs, it’s okay to, for, you know, a few reasons for the restrictions you might have in your project, we’ve learned restrictions and things like that, you can actually accept a very, very small percentage of power loss due to it, right. But when you’re designing by Fisher system, you cannot have that power loss from does anything go you have to, you know, break it down to zero. So, how do you do that, you actually extend the distance between the strings. So this is one thing you must do. The second reason why you must extend the row spacing is because when you do so, You have more of the ground area available for the solar lease to hit the ground be reflected back to the backside of the panel right. So, if you actually have more land exposed to sunlight, you will have more reflective reflected radiance and therefore you will achieve a better by efficient game okay. So, the fifth and final parameter by no but by no means is the least important is actually your DC AC ratio on your inverter are very common parameters using a 1.2 dc AC ratio. But when you have a biracial system since you are generating more energy throughout the day, in our in all hours of the day, you’re your generation curve will actually be wider and higher. So you actually have to bring your DC AC ratio down a little bit. So you do not suffer from more clipping loss. So how do you do that? So let’s say for instance, the 1.2 dc AC ratio, right? You have a modern facial system with 1.2. Then you’re going to design a by facial system, but you will not ideally use the 1.2 you will actually have to calculate your by facial gain, for example sake, let’s say it’s, you have a 10% by facial game, whether it works you’re generating 10% more energy. What do you do you have to actually diminish your DC AC ratio by 10%. So instead of 1.2, you actually use something around 1.1. Okay, so this is in order for you to not lose more powers. Due to the inverter clipping. So, basically, those are the five parameters that you will have to use when designing more efficient systems. And I guess we will go to the questions, write the q&a very soon. So you guys can actually make a lot of inquiries about, you know, what are the common parameters in Brazil, how to do it.

Unknown Speaker 26:30
But I just like to show you a couple of examples, a couple of case studies to illustrate in practical terms, how efficient system behaves, right. So in this example, you have the blowfish system. It is a in a single axis tracker. The albedo is gravel, right? rocks and stones, but not wide scramble it’s page, right so there’s a big difference. With page rebel The albedo is around 20%, which is more or less close to what we will also find in grass. Right. So when you actually use that, we can see that we have an 8% by facial gain. And this project, once again, has a very high

Unknown Speaker 27:23

Unknown Speaker 27:25
speed, right, you can see it’s very tilted. And it doesn’t reach the one meter above the ground, which, you know, there are restrictions, not every project, we’ll be able to reach that which is, you know, it’s fine. You cannot, it’s very hard to get a 100% optimized project, right. So as long as you do, you do actually designed the best you can, with all of your restrictions in place, you should be fine. And so in this case, we’ve got An 8% by facial gain for a by facial system using a tracker one axis tracker and will allow me to wiggle around 0.2 or 20%. And all just to let you know this was conducted by independent third party lab. But you can also use by faith you can also design by facial systems on racks, it doesn’t necessarily have to be on trackers. So in this example, you can see that you can use it either on portrait or landscape it is at one at a one meter height. And now this time, we are using a different albedo surface. It’s the white gravel so you can see has a higher opido. The grab the beach gravel has around 20% the white gravel around 35%, right. So without obito you can actually See that the the by facial gain is high jumped from 8% to 10, four to 9%. Of course, once again, it’s not just the albedo the factors in as we mentioned, there are five main parameters to factors in when you’re designing your bio facial system. In other words, you have to make a few adjustments, right? adapt your system to what you’re usually doing when compared to the mama facial systems.

Unknown Speaker 29:35
So, so far, laundry has had over five gigawatts of my official projects around the world. A world quick survey conducted by Bloomberg asked you know, the PV market, what do you think about the by facial technology? And we are, we actually had like a over 80% acceptance ratio which you know, really shows that the by facial technology, though, new, right? And I think it’s the evolution of the PV market, especially for decentralized generation projects. So thank you very much. And we will be taking questions now.

Unknown Speaker 30:22
Thank you very much, Alan, for your presentation. So we have quite a number of questions. So if you stop sharing your screen, of course, and I’ll say it right.

Unknown Speaker 30:34
So, well, we have quite a lot of questions here. So let’s go through them. We have

Unknown Speaker 30:43
a question on whether where you could get albedo data, how it is measured. Could you like give us a an overview on that?

Unknown Speaker 30:56
Sure. So there’s actually some left measurements from different companies for logic can provide this table for you, for the average LP the value for every material, right? But it’s basically how it has kind of been studied, you get every different material. And you do actually a spectrum study on how the light will reflect off that material. And that’s how we get from the zero to 100% values. Of course, you know, just like the absolute zero, the perfect reflectance is only theoretical, right? And it’s no which is the most reflective though it is not one it’s around 80%. Right. So if you were that inferior, it goes from zero to 100%. But there’s no actual material that will

Unknown Speaker 31:48
really give you 100%.

Unknown Speaker 31:49
It’s like, yeah,

Unknown Speaker 31:51
I understand, okay, and someone asked whether how you should Whether cotton grass I think affects the level of albedo Oberto

Unknown Speaker 32:07
see so how

Unknown Speaker 32:07
does grass comping affect Oberto is an optimum grass height? I think so looking at your table, but what you show? Well, grass is probably not that, like the best surface or better.

Unknown Speaker 32:22
Yeah, it’s it’s not very high right. So, he ranges from zero point 15 zero points to 26 however, it is the most common material in most projects, right, especially in Brazil. So, this will actually be the most common ground material you will find a mix of grass and you know, like compressed land not sent. Right, right. So, it actually uh, the optimum grass height is actually the height in which you should keep your plan right your operation and maintenance. Do not let grass grow too big and that it will actually create shading on your pvcs right. So, so this this is the optimum height right keep your omm in, in good quality. Right? You can cut your grass right there’s no problem but don’t have to get so high that it will create cheating on your system.

Unknown Speaker 33:25
Okay, okay no that’s These are some some tips there for you Who asked you know how to treat the ground for a better There are also questions about clearance. So you spoke about clearance and there are a few questions about one of them was whether they should be clearance should be higher they normal panels, how high they should be raised and whether these affect the cost of foundation. So, is it is it more expensive to have Tire foundations that the hyphenation is you need EViews

Unknown Speaker 34:06
by facial modules,

Unknown Speaker 34:10
right? So when you’re using trekkers the note right is already standardized what the tracker heights are. So you wouldn’t have any, any cost variance in that. When you’re using racks that in the amount of structure that you need for a higher installation will be more. So you you might incur in a slightly higher material costs. However, this will be compensated by the extra energy generation, right. So when you’re doing when you’re developing a PV project, what are the four main pillars? It’s the technical pillar number one, which basically is trying to get as much energy generation as possible while mitigating The power loss, right? This is the technical side of it. The second one is the capex, right? Which is just the amount of investment. The third one is the LCL e or the energy cost, right? And when you’re actually using vi official systems, you have to ponder a lot more. What the lcbo is not only to Catholics, right, but the amount of investment because you’re actually now generating more energy with the same system than you’re doing with mom official. So, in case you occur into a slight complex increase your you have to look at how much extra energy you’re generating. Right? And this will actually make your LLC Do you better make your LLC lower, so the cost of energy will actually be lower. And your project therefore, will have a very fine in secret forums.

Unknown Speaker 35:58
So But yeah, I think I answered half of the question.

Unknown Speaker 36:03
Sorry, I think is my fault for bundling in, you know, four or five questions, but I think you answer the question. So the question is Where should they be raised higher? Say thank you, you answer that that normal, yes. And whether it would cost more and you mentioned Well, not that much more. And you’ll also get more electricity a lot more electrical output. So could they should compensate. So I think you can answer all of the questions a high pass not very clearly just now. There is

Unknown Speaker 36:42
one over

Unknown Speaker 36:45
there is someone is asking what do you mean by the by facial factor? If you could explain again, because I

Unknown Speaker 36:51
write the song. Some people see they’re called by facial factor or by fish reality. Be young might be a little bit more familiar with that term. So let’s take an average market failure rate the panels you will find will have an average of 70% by officiality or 70%. By efficient factory, it’s the exact same thing, right? And what what the concept behind that is, is the ability of the backside of your panel to generate power when compared to the front side. So every time we talk about the power rating or the power bit of a panel, it is exclusively the front side. Right? So if 440 watt peak panel, it’s 440. Front side and want to buy fish reality or the beneficial factory states when it’s 70%. Is that in if you expose the backside of your panel to the exact same scenario and to the executive sync variables as the front side it will generate up to 70% of the front side power of ad right. So, that is the the concept of by official factor.

Unknown Speaker 38:13
So, in best in an optimum scenario we generate up to 70% of the of what the front side of a panel would generate.

Unknown Speaker 38:27
Yeah, that is the concept but, very clearly, this is a theoretical concept for two things you will never turn your you will never turn your paddle right inside out. So, you will use the backside to get the direct sunlight, you will never do that right. So, you will never reach the 70% power, but that is the concept.

Unknown Speaker 38:51
Okay. And what the extra generation you could get from generating on both sides. Turning on red still normal circumstance.

Unknown Speaker 39:05
Yeah. So if you actually optimize technically your, your PV cyst, your design your PV system, you can actually come up to 25 or 30%. By finish again, however, it’s very, it’s very hard to optimize your entire system completely. Right? As spoken before you have, every every company has a certain amount of resources and also a certain amount of restrictions in their project, right? It’s not always 100%. So, what you have to do is get the optimum design with what you can do, or in other words, you will always have your own project philosophy or, you know, philosophy design. And with that, what we’re going to see in the first bite efficient projects, In Brazil, is that you people will usually use the ground material that it’s available in their, their plants. But this will be the most common cases. Yes, some people might actually start treating the ground material the land right to get better obito. But for the first projects that will start operation that will come into operation in Brazil, you the companies will actually opt to keep the common I’ll be the Brazil will most likely be grass and compressed land, right. In some other countries, it might be sand, right? In very, very cold climates, you might have snow for three or six months, right. So for the first, for this first batch of beneficial systems, we’ll see the plants operating with their natural ground material. Right. So in that you will have somewhere between five and 10% by official game.

Unknown Speaker 41:08
Okay. That makes that makes no sense someone from the audience asked whether it makes economic sense to engage in surface modification for Oberto maximization.

Unknown Speaker 41:23
Have you done some studies in which circumstances you know, he said, is it justified to suffering the ground, so you get reflectance from the ground good.

Unknown Speaker 41:36
So, once again, we fall to that project philosophy or you know, project development, the opido once you keep all the other variables the same, and you only change the LP do the beneficial game is almost linear, right? So, if you if you have a or b do have 20% and you actually Change it to like 40 or 45%, you will see an almost one to one ratio, right, which means you will almost double your by facial gain, if you keep all the other variables the same in your project, right. So this is the actually so this is the math or the calculation you have to do when you’re designing your project, take a look at the four pillars take a look at the technical side catbacks DLC. And actually, I think I forgot to tell what the fourth pillar is, is the return on investment. Right? So, you take a look at that, that you use you’ll have to do you have to study many scenarios to find what the optimum project is or the optimal case for your company is right. But yes, if you change the LP though, the ratio which you will change it and so almost one to one, so you doubled up though you will practically double your By facial gain from that start point, you get to your project and you look at it, how it will be, what will be the best end result for it.

Unknown Speaker 43:11
Okay, brilliant. So, there is another person is asking a question about the operating temperatures of mono versus by facial. So, are there any significant differences? Are they quite similar in that regard?

Unknown Speaker 43:28
good scores quite similar for the operating temperature for Maleficent by efficients virtually the same.

Unknown Speaker 43:37
Okay. And someone is asking how do you minimize hotspots can be on the backside of a module?

Unknown Speaker 43:49
Does a structure have an influence on this?

Unknown Speaker 43:53
So, yes, right so, when you’re dealing on the backside you have to cut the shadings to zero So

Unknown Speaker 44:02
every time you’re installing your panel be a rack or tracker, you cannot have any structures going through the middle of the panel yours have to install by the friends, right, doing a count tour of it. And we spoke a little bit about that then about the shooting pack on the tracker, right? stating what what is the optimal distance between the tracker axis and the backside of the panel, which it’s at least four centimeters or 40 millimeters. But you know, most companies can do a lot more than that between like eight and eight centimeters or 12 centimeters, most tracker companies, right? So yes, you do have to be careful. spending a lot of attention in cheating pact or partial shading. In fact, of course, it comes into play also because that will affect the panel, depending on the amount of dirt that you’re holding. Whenever plan, actually, you know, accepts you might generate some hotspots. But you also have to, you know, keep your RNN up to date, right and get dirty, dusty, and things like that, because you know, that will impact the PVC, just any anyway. Anyhow.

Unknown Speaker 45:23
So that’s a good point, actually. So regarding the operations and maintenance of the land, are there any different from a standard plan? So how often do you need to claim the re site is one of the questions that I’ve got here.

Unknown Speaker 45:39
So actually, the om is almost the same. You just have to clean the backside, on average, once a year. But, of course, it depends where your site is specifically, right. If you’re actually in the desert, you might have to clean it more than once a year. Right. But it’s like normal circumstances, but I wouldn’t say normal on average circumstances. Once again, let’s take the example in Brazil, right? Yeah. Compressed land and grass. Cleaning the backside once a year is fine. So you actually have to do a more of manual labor. Right? On the front side, you have many options, many types of machines to do it. But on the backside, it’s a little bit harder, right? So it will be somewhat of more manual labor to do it on the backside. But once a year is fine,

Unknown Speaker 46:33
once a year, on the most common circumstances.

Unknown Speaker 46:38
Yeah. Talking closely on the back side or the front side, just keep it

Unknown Speaker 46:44
as you will. Right.

Unknown Speaker 46:47
Right. So we have we have a number we have a question here about optimum field. So we we’ve talked about the hype, so he’s not an optimum deal, but you were You could maximize by facial game.

Unknown Speaker 47:05
But so So, yes, there are two scenarios, right? When you’re using rocks, the optimum tilt, it’s basically the same as your latitude. So if you’re at minus 20 latitude, you your tilt, your optimum tilt will actually be 20. Right? It is, in practical terms, it’s not always achievable. You’re most of the time scared like 1012 tilt, which is fine, right? 10 or 12 is better than zero when using racks, but when you using a by facial system, you will you have to tilt a little bit more, right. So if you actually want to have a better by facial gain, you have to tilt two or three degrees more than you would on a model efficient system. That is when you’re using rights, not trackers. Right. So that’s that’s one case one scenario when you’re actually using trackers, right, usually you’re using a single axis tracker. So you do not have a say on the tilt. But you have the angles that going from east to west, right but you do not have tilt on single axis tracker. So your tilt for the tracker is zero, but you know, the energy generation is compensated from the movement falling is to us, and so on trackers you, unless you’re using a tilted tracker or a two axis tracker, there’s no way to talk about still, but that doesn’t mean that the tracker will not give you further energy generation it will.

Unknown Speaker 48:48
Right, right. Okay, well, a few things to consider that another design question, but I can say here on the latest has to do with this space between between the rows, are there any general recommendations other than well designed to avoid shading? Right, which is pretty standard?

Unknown Speaker 49:11
Yeah. So

Unknown Speaker 49:15
yeah, there is some average numbers, right?

Unknown Speaker 49:21
When you’re using the by facial systems in Brazil, we usually start doing simulations, where the distance of around eight meters and we actually start you know, increasing the distance from that, which will actually changed the energy generation. So you start doing your scenario evaluation from there. Right. So, but basically, if you’re doing it Brazil, you do your own simulations. You just the distance as you would from your mon facial system. So for just for example, sake, let’s say you use six meters for your system all artificial system take that six meters and start enlarging it and settle you do not have a shading loss due to the center angle, which in the southern hemisphere is when you’re in winter does anything go will increase and you will have more shading on your plants. So, take that down to zero and you start that that is the start point. That distance is your start point. You cannot you cannot accept any shading loss due to a variance in the zenith angle. Start from the pitcher lawn official system. See when what in what distance you will no longer have any loss due to shading during winter in the southern hemisphere and you will start to play from there. So that is your x zero, your starting point for this and you can actually increase that distance to see how much more energy gain you will, you will have by fishing in birds.

Unknown Speaker 51:14
Right? And finally, I can see this question on the box like four or five times, I think is a million dollar question. So what’s the the price difference between a mono facial module and a by facial module?

Unknown Speaker 51:30
I’m sorry, what is

Unknown Speaker 51:31
the joint difference? price?

Unknown Speaker 51:35
Yeah, the same.

Unknown Speaker 51:38
percentage wise, oh, I would have to bring my colleagues from the commercial team, right. We talk a little bit about that. But it’s, it’s it’s practically non existence, right. It’s very, very small. And as soon as you got scalability in the market, we will see more and more clients fishery systems being connected to the grid, you know, that difference will diminish more and more. But it’s very small, right? I can put you in contact with my commercial team to like to, you know, get a quote or discuss about a little bit more about

Unknown Speaker 52:18
pricing. I mean, what I would say is that, you know, do those interested in in these type of question, which is more, I can see someone asking for bribes and when asked him whether you have an office in our particular country, so we will actually send you the details of an email with presentations that you can either get in touch with or somebody put you in touch with Allen’s team, or you can get in touch with them directly and then who will quickly talk to the right people within non-g but

Unknown Speaker 52:53
you know, all of these questions have answers.

Unknown Speaker 52:57
Of course, so Well, I think that, you know, we’ve answered quite a lot of questions, and we probably should start wrapping things up. So I like to thank everyone in the audience who’s been here. We’ve asked for the last hour. And to you, Alan, are there any general recommendations or any parting words for for the audience?

Unknown Speaker 53:27
Yeah, yeah. So of course, so thank you very much for your time.

Unknown Speaker 53:33
Thank you very much, AJ, for the opportunity of being here. participant in this webinar, and also I just like to send a final message to the audience. Please take care of your health, please, stay safe. So, we’re going through a very tough time regarding the pandemic. So do as much as you can to protect yourself and I guess slowly push Surely, we will retake or restart on activities, and, you know, get to get back to

Unknown Speaker 54:09
some semblance of normalcy.

Unknown Speaker 54:12
That’s right. So well, we’re actually it’s looking more and more normal here in Spain. Now we’ve Well, hopefully Fingers crossed, you know, we’ll Yeah, we’ll get to that point soon all over the world and things will keep getting better here as well. any case, you know, I like to echo Alan’s message. So keep safe. And thank you very much for tuning in to our webinar. So if you want to know what other webinars do, we have in store for you, you can go to our website, kPa insights, calm. And thank you, Alan, once again, and thank you to everyone in the audience. So Well, see you next time.

Unknown Speaker 54:59
Thank you. Thank you. Very much. Bye bye

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